Akka HTTP on Heroku

by Jannik Arndt

Getting a Akka HTTP-based backend up and running on Heroku for free can be done in less then 30 minutes — if you know the tricks.


First, create a new app on Heroku. The easiest way to deploy something is to push it to the attached git repository, as explained on the Deploy page:

Next, setup you local sbt project. My way would be

$ sbt new jannikarndt/scala.g8

Do the git thing:

$ git init
$ git add .
$ git commit -m "Template"  

and next, connect the repository to Heroku. If you haven’t already, install their cli first:

$ brew install heroku/brew/heroku
$ heroku login
heroku: Enter your login credentials
Email: your@mail.com
Password: ************
Logged in as your@mail.com
$ heroku git:remote -a yourproject
set git remote heroku to https://git.heroku.com/yourproject.git

plugins.sbt and build.sbt

To create a build that can be run on Heroku, you need the sbt-native-packager in your project/plugins.sbt:

addSbtPlugin("com.typesafe.sbt" % "sbt-native-packager" % "1.3.12")

You also have to enable the plugin in the build.sbt:


This enables the stage command. Otherwise you’ll end up with weird errors:

sbt> stage
[error] Not a valid command: stage (similar: last-grep, set, last)
[error] Not a valid project ID: stage
[error] Expected ':'
[error] Not a valid key: stage (similar: state, target, tags)
[error] stage
[error]      ^
sbt> compile stage
[error] Expected whitespace character
[error] Expected '/'
[error] compile stage
[error]         ^

Next, you need to define the Main class to be run. This is also done in your build.sbt:

mainClass in Compile := Some("Main")

Note: If you use packages, you’ll need to write the full identifier, i.e. com.mycompany.myproject.Main or something similar.

If you get this part wrong, sbt stage will warn you:

sbt> stage
[info] Wrote /target/scala-2.12/yourproject_2.12-1.0.pom
[info] Packaging /target/scala-2.12/yourproject_2.12-1.0.jar ...
[info] Done packaging.
[warn] You have no main class in your project. No start script will be generated.
[warn] You have no main class in your project. No start script will be generated.
[success] Total time: 0 s, completed Oct 27, 2018 6:13:13 PM

but on Heroku it will actually crash the app:

heroku[web.1]: State changed from starting to crashed
app[web.1]: Error: Main method not found in class Main, please define the main method as:
app[web.1]: public static void main(String[] args)
app[web.1]: or a JavaFX application class must extend javafx.application.Application

The final build.sbt should look something like this:

name := "yourproject"
scalaVersion := "2.12.7"
version := "1.0"
maintainer := "you"
mainClass in Compile := Some("Main")


libraryDependencies ++= Seq(
  "com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-http" % "10.1.5",
  "com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-stream" % "2.5.17"


Now that you’ve managed to create a build and reference the correct mainClass, there’s only two caveats left: Binding the server. First, on Heroku you can not bind to localhost, you have to write instead. Secondly, the port changes with every start of the app and is given as a parameter (-Dhttp.port=36803) and environment variable ($PORT). The code for this:

val port: Int = sys.env.getOrElse("PORT", "8080").toInt
WebServer.startServer("", port)

A complete example for a WebServer would be

import akka.http.scaladsl.server._

object Main {
  def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
    val port: Int = sys.env.getOrElse("PORT", "8080").toInt
    WebServer.startServer("", port)

object WebServer extends HttpApp {

  override protected def routes: Route =
    pathEndOrSingleSlash {
      get {
        complete("It works")


After you tested locally running

$ sbt compile stage

(because that’s exactly the command that will be run on Heroku’s server) and maybe sbt run or sbt reStart, you can finally deploy.

Since you already connected our git to the remote repository, all you have to do is push:

$ git push --set-upstream heroku master
Enumerating objects: 13, done.
Counting objects: 100% (13/13), done.
Delta compression using up to 4 threads
Compressing objects: 100% (6/6), done.
Writing objects: 100% (7/7), 1.25 KiB | 1.25 MiB/s, done.
Total 7 (delta 3), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Compressing source files... done.
remote: Building source:
remote: -----> Scala app detected
remote: -----> Installing JDK 1.8... done
remote: -----> Running: sbt compile stage
remote:        [info] Done compiling.
remote:        [success] Total time: 4 s, completed Oct 27, 2018 5:44:33 PM
remote:        [info] Done packaging.
remote:        [success] Total time: 3 s, completed Oct 27, 2018 5:44:36 PM
remote: -----> Dropping ivy cache from the slug
remote: -----> Dropping sbt boot dir from the slug
remote: -----> Dropping compilation artifacts from the slug
remote: -----> Discovering process types
remote:        Procfile declares types     -> (none)
remote:        Default types for buildpack -> web
remote: -----> Compressing...
remote:        Done: 71.9M
remote: -----> Launching...
remote:        Released v10
remote:        https://yourproject.herokuapp.com/ deployed to Heroku
remote: Verifying deploy... done.
To https://git.heroku.com/yourproject.git
   ca5c7c5..4a5a138  master -> master

Now head to your url and start building the rest!


I recently created a wonderful bug.

This is a basic example how to implement oAuth2 using Akka HTTP and Scala. It provides three endpoints. From the clients point of view:

  • / — publicly accessible, returns “Welcome!”,
  • /auth — provide your username and password, receive an access_token in return,
  • /api — secured by oAuth, send the access_token in a header to gain access.

From the server’s point of view:

  • / — publicly accessible, do nothing,
  • /auth — receive basic auth credentials, verify they’re in the list of known credentials, create an access_token, return it,
  • /api — receive authorization header, check if access_token is in list of valid tokens.

Since oAuth tokens are short lived, the server also has to invalidate expired tokens.

Getting a Akka HTTP-based backend up and running on Heroku for free can be done in less then 30 minutes — if you know the tricks.